The NIH has offered career development (aka “K” awards) since 1957 to help ensure that a diverse pool of highly trained scientists are available in adequate numbers and in the appropriate research areas to address the nation’s biomedical, behavioral, and clinical research needs. K awards are typically granted to individuals who have recently finished their doctoral and post-doctoral training and are transitioning to faculty positions. The awards provide salary support and limited research funds for a combination of intensive research and mentored training to advance participant careers to independent status. The expectation is that through this sustained period of protected research time and career development exposure, awardees will be able to accelerate their independent research careers and become competitive for new research project grant (e.g., R01) funding.